CE 407 Separations

Registration number: 17386

Prerequisites: CE 304 (Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics), CE 318 (Transport Processes II)

Credits: 3

Instructors:
Dr. David Courtemanche, 203A Furnas Hall, 645-3316, djcourte@buffalo.edu
Dr. Miao Yu, 504 Furnas Hall, 645-9302, myu9@buffalo.edu

Class Time and Location: Tuesday and Thursday, 9:35 am to 10:50 am. NSC 210

Office hours:
djc Mondays and Wednesdays at 1:00 pm--2:00 pm in 203A Furnas Hall, or by arrangement (send email to arrange a meeting time) OPEN DOOR POLICY - djc will be happy to answer questions outside of office hours; students should feel free to email anytime with questions or stop by 203A Furnas Hall

my Tuesdays and Thursdays at 11:00 am--12:00 pm in 504 Furnas, or by arrangement (students are encouraged to send email to arrange a meeting time or to ask questions) .

Course description: Staged operations of distillation, absorption, leaching, and extraction. Phase equilibria and application of equilibrium data to calculational methods provide knowledge of solution methods and limitations for binary and multicomponent systems.

Required textbook: McCabe WL, Smith JC, Harriott P. 2005. Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering, 7th ed. McGraw-Hill, New York. Denoted by "MSH" below.

Supplementary textbooks:
Treybal RE. 1981. Mass Transfer Operations, 3rd ed. McGraw-Hill, New York. Denoted by "T" below.
Dohert MF, Malone MF. 2001. Conceptual Design of Distillation Systems. McGraw-Hill, New York. Denoted by "DM" below.

Summaries of lectures, and materials pertaining to each, are posted here.

Lect. Date Lecturer Description Pertinent are...
Text Notes Hmwk
L01 8/31
Tue
djc/my Introduction to course. Introduction to textbook. Introduction to gas absorption. Rigorous calculation allowing for evaporation of liquid. Simplified calculation neglecting evaporation of liquid ("the usual approximations").
MSH pp. 521-525 Lecture 01
Single-stage absorption
#01
L02 9/02
Thur
djc Improving a gas absorption operating by adding stages; why countercurrent contact is best. Operating line, equilibrium curve, McCabe-Thiele diagram, counting of stages.
MSH pp. 643-653 Lecture 02
Countercurrent contact
Absorption tower example (everything except minimum liquid flow rate)
#01
L03 9/07
Tue
djc Absorption factor method (Kremser equation). Absorption operations, including minimum liquid flow rate. Stripping operations, including minimum gas flow rate.
MSH pp. 653-660 Lecture 03
Absorption tower example (calculation of minimum liquid flow rate)
Stripping tower example
#02
L04 9/09
Thur
djc Saturated vapor pressure and relative volatility. Binary vapor-liquid equilibria and phase diagrams.
MSH pp. 663-666, 737-742 Lecture 04
#02
L05 9/14
Tue
djc Graphical method for binary flash distillation. Analytical method for binary and multicomponent flash distillation. Why a column improves product purities relative to flash distillation. Column mass balances. Percent recovery.
MSH pp. 666-681 Lecture 05
Binary distillation introduction
Binary distillation column flows exampleFlash distillation example
#03
L06 9/16
Thur
djc McCabe-Thiele diagram: rectifying section operating line, feed line, stripping section operating line, counting of stages, feed stage location.
MSH pp. 681-694 Lecture 06
Binary distillation McCabe-Thiele method
Binary distillation tray efficiency (pp. 1-11)
Binary distillation McCabe-Thiele examples
Binary distillation McCabe Thiele 1925
Binary distillation Murphree 1925
Binary distillation further calcs and design (p. 1)
#03
L07 9/21
Tue
djc Partial versus total condensers. Minimum number of stages, Fenske equation. Minimum and optimum reflux ratio. Use of overall and Murphree tray efficiency.
Effective Equilibrium Excel Calculation
MSH pp. 674-675, 687-691,712-722 Lecture 07
Binary distillation McCabe-Thiele method (p. 6)
Binary distillation further calcs and design (pp. 2-3, 5-6)
Binary distillation nearly pure products examples
Binary distillation enthalpy balance examples
#04
L08 9/23
Thur
djc Nearly pure products: use of the Kremser equation for distillation. Enthalpy balance calculations: liquid and vapor mixture enthalpies.
MSH pp. 694-701 Lecture 08
Binary distillation McCabe-Thiele method (p. 6)
Binary distillation further calcs and design (pp. 2-3, 5-6)
Binary distillation nearly pure products examples
Binary distillation enthalpy balance examples
#04
L09 9/28
Tue
djc Enthalpy balance calculations: Condenser and reboiler duties. Design of columns: vapor pressure drop, downcomer level and tray spacing; flooding velocity and column diameter.
MSH pp. 701-712, 718-724 Lecture 09
Binary distillation tray efficiency (pp. 12-13)
Binary distillation further calcs and design (pp. 4-5, 7-11)
Binary distillation enthalpy balance examples
#05
L10 9/30
Thur
djc Batch distillation.
MSH pp. 724-727 Lecture 10
Binary batch distillation theory
Binary batch distillation examples
#05
L11 10/05
Tue
djc Introduction to multicomponent distillation: light and heavy keys, splits, non-distributed and distributed components, column sequencing. Short-cut methods: Fenske equation for minimum number of stages, Underwood's method for minimum reflux ratio, Gilliland correlation for number of ideal stages at operating reflux ratio.
MSH pp. 742-752, 757-759
DM pp. 144-145, 290-291
Lecture 11
L11 Example Problems
Multicomponent distillation column sequencing example
Multicomponent distillation short-cut examples
#06
L12 10/07
Thur
djc Degrees of Freedom in a distillation process. Tray-to-tray calculations. Design versus performance models. Collection of VLE and LLE data!
MSH pp. 752-756
DM pp. 115-124, 144-145, 147
Lecture 12
Multicomponent distillation tray-to-tray examples
Multicomponent distillation performance models
VLE and LLE data DECHEMA series
#06
L13 10/12
Tue
djc Definition of leaching, everyday example (making tea), theory for countercurrent contact. Problem-solving procedure, solved example problem.
MSH pp. 764-772 Lecture 13
Leaching example
Leaching example
Leaching more examples
Leaching shanks process
#07
L14 10/14
Thur
my Introduction to liquid extraction: basic process and uses, liquid-liquid equilibria, ternary phase diagrams, mass balances for a mixing step. Single-stage liquid extraction.
MSH pp. 772-783
T pp. 433-446
Lecture 14
Liquid extraction introduction
Liquid extraction single-stage examples
#08
L15 10/19
Tue
my Multistage crosscurrent extraction. Multistage countercurrent extraction: overall mass balances.
MSH pp. 772-783
T pp. 446-448, 450-451
Lecture 15
Liquid extraction countercurrent examples (problems 1 and 2)
#08
Exam 1 10/21
Thur
Covers Lectures 1-12, Homework 1-6
L16 10/26
Tue
my Multistage countercurrent extraction: Hunter-Nash and McCabe-Thiele methods for counting stages.
MSH pp. 772-783
T pp. 450-453
Lecture 16
Liquid extraction countercurrent examples (problems 3(b), 4, 5(b) and 6)
Video of LLE Countercurrent Example 3b
#09
L17 10/28
Thur
my Multistage countercurrent extraction: minimum entering solvent flow rate. Liquid extraction equipment.
MSH pp. 783-789
T pp. 450-453
Lecture 17
Liquid extraction countercurrent examples (problems 3(a) and 5(a))
#09
L18 11/02
Tue
my Introduction to mass transfer: where mass transfer is "hidden" in tray towers. Estimation of liquid- and gas-phase diffusion coefficients. Solute flux: definition
MSH pp. 527-540, 542-543 Lecture 18
Appendix 19
#10
L19 11/04
Thur
my Solute flux through 1D slab for cases of equimolar counterdiffusion and one-component mass transfer (A diffusing through non-diffusing B). Film theory and mass transfer coefficients. Two Film theory introduction
MSH pp. 547-548, 555-556 Lecture 19
#10
L20 11/09
Tue
my Two-film theory: interfacial mole fractions yi and xi, overall mass transfer coefficients Ky and Kx. Correlations for mass transfer coefficients: dimensionless groups (Sherwood number Sh, Stanton number St, Colburn j factor for mass transfer jM), correlation equations for various flow situations. Theory of Murphree tray efficiency.
MSH pp. 576-585 Lecture 20
Mass transfer two-film theory examples
Mass transfer correlations
Mass transfer theory of Murphree tray efficiency
#11
L21 11/11
Thur
my Introduction to gas absorption with packed towers. Four alternate expressions for per-volume rate of mass transfer, integration of differential mass balance, height of transfer unit, number of transfer units.
MSH pp. 576-585 Lecture 21
Absorption packed towers introduction
Absorption packed towers example
Packed towers HTU (pp. 1-2, 5)
#11
L22 11/16
Tue
my Mass transfer correlations for heights of a transfer unit (HTU's) Hy and Hx (equations and example).
MSH pp. 576-585 Lecture 22
Packed towers HTU (pp. 3-4)
Packed towers mass transfer correlations
Table 18.1
Packed towers HTU example
#12
L23 11/18
Thur
my Types of packing. Hydraulics of packed towers: loading and flooding, correlations for pressure drop and flooding velocity. Determination of tower diameter based on operation at a fraction (typically 50-60%) of the flooding velocity, or at an appropriate specified pressure drop.
MSH pp. 565-575 Lecture 23
Packed towers pressure drop and flooding example
#12
L24 11/23
Tue
my Introduction to adsorption. Adsorption isotherms. Fixed beds: concentration profiles, mass transfer zone, break point and break-point time, breakthrough curve, length of unused bed.
MSH pp. 836-851 Lecture 24
Adsorption example
#13
L25 11/30
Tue
my More detailed look at adsorption: fundamental mass transfer equations. Adsorbent regeneration.
MSH pp. 836-851 Lecture 25
Adsorption example 2
#13
Exam 2 12/02
Thur
Covers Lectures 13-23, Homework 7-12
L26 12/07
Tue
djc Azeotropic Separations
Packed Tower Advanced Topics
Lecture 26
Packed towers temperature effects example
That's enough...
L27 12/09
Thur
djc Air Separation
Partial Condensers Revisited
Lecture 27 That's enough...

Learning outcomes: Click here for statement of learning outcomes

Composition of grade:
Homework 20%
2 Midterm Exams, 20% each 40%
Final Exam 40%

Assignment of grade: Final grades for all students will be determined by establishing an optimal correlation between total points earned over the course (computed according to the preceding table and scaled from 0 to 1000; essentially continuously distributed data) and grade points (4.00 for A, 3.67 for A-, 3.33 for B+, ..., 1.33 for D+, 1.00 for D; quantized results). The highest reasonably achievable score (considered "perfect") and the lowest passing score will be set according to the instructor's judgment and experience maintaining consistency with past offerings of the course, and will typically be ~900 (90%) and ~300 (30%) respectively. An effort will be made to position grade lines at gaps in the distribution of course totals. Click here to see a hypothetical example of this procedure.

Professionalism: Students are expected to turn in homework that is neat, clear and well organized. Significant point penalties will be imposed for messy, disorganized, confusing or otherwise unclear work. Although allowances will be made for the effects of time pressure on exams, points will also be deducted for messy, disorganized, confusing or otherwise unclear solutions of exam problems.

Academic integrity: All students must fully familiarize themselves with University policy on academic integrity. Acceptable and unacceptable conduct will be reviewed on the first day of class. Acts of academic dishonesty, such as plagiarism or other infractions, will not be tolerated. As discussed on the first day of class, the concept of plagiarism applies not only to text per se, but also to mathematical derivations and computer programs. Students will be required to take responsibility for acts of academic dishonesty by bearing penalties resulting from these acts. Suspected instants of academic dishonesty will be investigated thoroughly in accordance with Steps 1-3 of the University’s Consultative Resolution process. If an act of academic dishonesty is substantiated, then a point penalty will be imposed at the first instance, and failure in the course will be imposed at any subsequent instance. Being allowed to continue the course with a point penalty is contingent on offering a reasonable explanation of the infraction. The instructor will be happy to answer questions about what does and does not constitute allowed behavior at any time. The instructors will cooperate fully with any investigation resulting from an appeal of a finding of academic dishonesty. Click here for examples of academically honest and dishonest behavior.

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Course Piracy:
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Accommodations for physical and learning disabilities: Students are encouraged to request reasonable accommodations for equal access to this course because of a physical or learning disability. To do so they must register with UB's Accessibility Resources Office (60 Capen Hall, 645-2608, http://www.buffalo.edu/studentlife/who-we-are/departments/accessibility.html). The instructors will fully support students in receiving approved accommodations, e.g., by bringing exams in advance to Accessibility Resources for students entitled to take exams there with extra time, or taking other actions requested the Office.

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Grateful thanks to Johannes M. Nitsche for use of website and other course materials