Registration number: 15772
Prerequisites: CE 304 (Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics), CE 318 (Transport Processes II)
Credits: 3
Instructor:
Dr. David Courtemanche, 309A Furnas Hall, 6450650,
djcourte@buffalo.edu
Zoom Meeting Link: https://buffalo.zoom.us/j/4543279676?pwd=M0JHOUc4cW9kVWRKSS91ckduZ3VSdz09
Course description: Staged operations of distillation, absorption, leaching, and extraction. Phase equilibria and application of equilibrium data to calculational methods provide knowledge of solution methods and limitations for binary and multicomponent systems.
Required textbook: McCabe WL, Smith JC, Harriott P. 2005. Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering, 7th ed. McGrawHill, New York. Denoted by "MSH" below.
Supplementary textbooks:
Treybal RE. 1981. Mass Transfer Operations, 3rd ed. McGrawHill, New York. Denoted by "T" below.
Dohert MF, Malone MF. 2001. Conceptual Design of Distillation Systems. McGrawHill, New York. Denoted by "DM" below.
Summaries of lectures, and materials pertaining to each, are posted here.
Lect.  Date  Description  Pertinent are...  

Text  Notes  Hmwk  
L01  8/27 Tue 
Introduction to course. Introduction to textbook. Introduction to gas absorption.
Rigorous calculation allowing for evaporation of liquid.
Simplified calculation neglecting evaporation of liquid ("the usual approximations"). 
MSH pp. 521525 
■ Lecture 01 ■ Singlestage absorption 
#01 
L02  8/29 Thur 
Improving a gas absorption operating by adding stages; why countercurrent contact is best. Operating line, equilibrium curve,
McCabeThiele diagram, counting of stages. 
MSH pp. 643653 
■ Lecture 02 ■ Countercurrent contact ■ Absorption tower example (everything except minimum liquid flow rate) 
#01 
L03  9/03 Tue 
Absorption factor method (Kremser equation).
Absorption operations, including minimum liquid flow rate. Stripping operations, including minimum gas flow rate. 
MSH pp. 653660 
■ Lecture 03 ■ Absorption tower example (calculation of minimum liquid flow rate) ■ Stripping tower example 
#02 
L04  9/05 Thur 
Saturated vapor pressure and relative volatility. Binary vaporliquid equilibria and phase diagrams.  MSH pp. 663666, 737742 
■ Lecture 04 
#02 
L05  9/10 Tue 
Graphical method for binary flash distillation. Analytical method for binary and multicomponent
flash distillation. Why a column improves product purities relative to flash distillation. Column mass balances.
Percent recovery. 
MSH pp. 666681 
■ Lecture 05 ■ Binary distillation introduction ■ Binary distillation column flows example ■ Flash distillation example 
#03 
L06  9/12 Thur 
McCabeThiele diagram: rectifying section operating line, feed line, stripping section operating line, counting of stages, feed stage location. 
MSH pp. 681694 
■ Lecture 06 ■ Binary distillation McCabeThiele method ■ Binary distillation tray efficiency (pp. 111) ■ Binary distillation McCabeThiele examples ■ Binary distillation McCabe Thiele 1925 ■ Binary distillation Murphree 1925 ■ Binary distillation further calcs and design (p. 1) 
#03 
L07  9/17 Tue 
Partial versus total condensers. Minimum number of stages, Fenske equation. Minimum and optimum reflux ratio. Use of overall and Murphree tray efficiency. ■ Effective Equilibrium Excel Calculation 
MSH pp. 674675, 687691,712722 
■ Lecture 07 ■ Binary distillation McCabeThiele method (p. 6) ■ Binary distillation further calcs and design (pp. 23, 56) ■ Binary distillation nearly pure products examples ■ Binary distillation enthalpy balance examples 
#04 
L08  9/19 Thur 
Nearly pure products: use of the Kremser equation for distillation. Enthalpy balance calculations:
liquid and vapor mixture enthalpies. 
MSH pp. 694701 
■ Lecture 08 ■ Binary distillation McCabeThiele method (p. 6) ■ Binary distillation further calcs and design (pp. 23, 56) ■ Binary distillation nearly pure products examples ■ Binary distillation enthalpy balance examples 
#04 
L09  9/24 Tue 
Enthalpy balance calculations: Condenser and reboiler duties.
Design of columns: vapor pressure drop, downcomer level and tray spacing; flooding velocity and column diameter.

MSH pp. 701712, 718724 
■ Lecture 09 ■ Binary distillation tray efficiency (pp. 1213) ■ Binary distillation further calcs and design (pp. 45, 711) ■ Binary distillation enthalpy balance examples 
#05 
L10  9/26 Thur 
Batch distillation. 
MSH pp. 724727 
■ Lecture 10 ■ Binary batch distillation theory ■ Binary batch distillation examples 
#05 
L11  10/01 Tue 
Introduction to multicomponent distillation: light and heavy keys, splits, nondistributed and distributed
components, column sequencing. Shortcut methods: Fenske equation for minimum number of stages,
Underwood's method for minimum reflux ratio, Gilliland correlation for number of ideal stages
at operating reflux ratio. 
MSH pp. 742752, 757759 DM pp. 144145, 290291 
■ Lecture 11 ■ L11 Example Problems ■ Multicomponent distillation column sequencing example ■ Multicomponent distillation shortcut examples 
#06 
L12  10/03 Thur 
Degrees of Freedom in a distillation process.
Traytotray calculations. Design versus performance models. Collection of VLE and LLE data! 
MSH pp. 752756 DM pp. 115124, 144145, 147 
■ Lecture 12 ■ Multicomponent distillation traytotray examples ■ Multicomponent distillation performance models ■ VLE and LLE data DECHEMA series 
#06 
L13  10/08 Tue 
Definition of leaching, everyday example (making tea), theory for countercurrent contact. Problemsolving procedure, solved example problem. 
MSH pp. 764772 
■ Lecture 13 ■ Leaching example ■ Leaching example ■ Leaching more examples ■ Leaching shanks process 
#07 
L14  10/10 Thur 
Introduction to liquid extraction: basic process and uses,
liquidliquid equilibria, ternary phase diagrams, mass balances for a mixing step.
Singlestage liquid extraction. 
MSH pp. 772783 T pp. 433446 
■ Lecture 14 ■ Liquid extraction introduction ■ Liquid extraction singlestage examples 
#08 
10/15 Tue 
FALL BREAK  
L15  10/17 Thur 
Multistage crosscurrent extraction.
Multistage countercurrent extraction: overall mass balances. 
MSH pp. 772783 T pp. 446448, 450451 
■ Lecture 15 ■ Lecture 15b ■ Liquid extraction countercurrent examples (problems 1 and 2) 
#08 
Exam 1  10/22 Tue 
Covers Lectures 112, Homework 16 

L16  10/24 Thur 
Multistage countercurrent extraction: HunterNash and
McCabeThiele methods for counting stages. 
MSH pp. 772783 T pp. 450453 
■ Lecture 16 ■ Lecture 16b ■ Liquid extraction countercurrent examples (problems 3(b), 4, 5(b) and 6) ■ Video of LLE Countercurrent Example 3b 
#09 
L17  10/29 Tue 
Multistage countercurrent extraction: minimum entering solvent flow rate.
Liquid extraction equipment. 
MSH pp. 783789 T pp. 450453 
■ Lecture 17 ■ Lecture 17b ■ Liquid extraction countercurrent examples (problems 3(a) and 5(a)) 
#09 
L18  10/31 Thur 
Introduction to mass transfer: where mass transfer is "hidden" in tray towers.
Estimation of liquid and gasphase diffusion coefficients. Solute flux: definition 
MSH pp. 527540, 542543 
■ Lecture 18 ■ Appendix 19  #10 
L19  11/05 Tue 
Solute flux through 1D slab for cases of equimolar counterdiffusion and onecomponent mass transfer (A diffusing through
nondiffusing B).
Film theory and mass transfer coefficients. Two Film theory introduction 
MSH pp. 547548, 555556 
■ Lecture 19 
#10 
L20  11/07 Thur 
Twofilm theory: interfacial mole fractions y_{i} and x_{i},
overall mass transfer coefficients K_{y} and K_{x}.
Correlations for mass transfer coefficients: dimensionless groups (Sherwood number Sh, Stanton number St,
Colburn j factor for mass transfer j_{M}), correlation equations for various flow situations. Theory of Murphree tray efficiency. 
MSH pp. 576585 
■ Lecture 20 ■ Mass transfer twofilm theory examples ■ Mass transfer correlations ■ Mass transfer theory of Murphree tray efficiency 
#11 
L21  11/12 Tue 
Introduction to gas absorption with packed towers. Four alternate expressions for pervolume rate of mass transfer,
integration of differential mass balance, height of transfer unit, number of transfer units. 
MSH pp. 576585 
■ Lecture 21 ■ Absorption packed towers introduction ■ Absorption packed towers example ■ Packed towers HTU (pp. 12, 5) 
#11 
L22  11/14 Thur 
Mass transfer correlations for heights of a transfer unit (HTU's) H_{y} and H_{x} (equations and example).  MSH pp. 576585 
■ Lecture 22 ■ Packed towers HTU (pp. 34) ■ Packed towers mass transfer correlations ■ Table 18.1 ■ Packed towers HTU example 
#12 
L23  11/19 Tue 
Types of packing. Hydraulics of packed towers: loading and flooding, correlations for
pressure drop and flooding velocity. Determination of tower diameter based on operation
at a fraction (typically 5060%) of the flooding velocity, or at an appropriate specified
pressure drop. 
MSH pp. 565575 
■ Lecture 23 ■ Packed towers pressure drop and flooding example 
#12 
Exam 2  11/21 Thur 
Covers Lectures 1321, Homework 711 

L24  11/26 Tue 
Introduction to adsorption. Adsorption isotherms.
Fixed beds: concentration profiles, mass transfer zone, break point and breakpoint time,
breakthrough curve, length of unused bed. ■ video_24a ■ video_24b ■ video_24c ■ video_24d ■ video_24e ■ video_24f 
MSH pp. 836851 
■ Lecture 24 ■ Adsorption example 
That's enough... 
11/28 Thur 
THANKSGIVING BREAK  
L25  12/03 Tue 
More detailed look at adsorption: fundamental mass transfer equations.
Adsorbent regeneration. 
MSH pp. 836851 
■ Lecture 25 ■ Adsorption example 2 
That's enough... 
L26  12/05 Thur 
Azeotropic Separations Air Separation Partial Condensers Revisited 
■ Lecture 26 
That's enough...  
Learning outcomes: Click here for statement of learning outcomes
Composition of grade:Homework  20% 
2 Midterm Exams, 20% each  40% 
Final Exam  40% 
Assignment of grade: Final grades for all students will be determined by establishing an optimal correlation between total points earned over the course (computed according to the preceding table and scaled from 0 to 1000; essentially continuously distributed data) and grade points (4.00 for A, 3.67 for A, 3.33 for B+, ..., 1.33 for D+, 1.00 for D; quantized results). The highest reasonably achievable score (considered "perfect") and the lowest passing score will be set according to the instructor's judgment and experience maintaining consistency with past offerings of the course, and will typically be ~900 (90%) and ~300 (30%) respectively. An effort will be made to position grade lines at gaps in the distribution of course totals. Click here to see a hypothetical example of this procedure.
Professionalism: Students are expected to turn in homework that is neat, clear and well organized. Significant point penalties will be imposed for messy, disorganized, confusing or otherwise unclear work. Although allowances will be made for the effects of time pressure on exams, points will also be deducted for messy, disorganized, confusing or otherwise unclear solutions of exam problems.
Academic integrity: All students must fully familiarize themselves with University policy on academic integrity. Acceptable and unacceptable conduct will be reviewed on the first day of class. Acts of academic dishonesty, such as plagiarism or other infractions, will not be tolerated. As discussed on the first day of class, the concept of plagiarism applies not only to text per se, but also to mathematical derivations and computer programs. Students will be required to take responsibility for acts of academic dishonesty by bearing penalties resulting from these acts. Suspected instants of academic dishonesty will be investigated thoroughly in accordance with Steps 13 of the University’s Consultative Resolution process. If an act of academic dishonesty is substantiated, then a point penalty will be imposed at the first instance, and failure in the course will be imposed at any subsequent instance. Being allowed to continue the course with a point penalty is contingent on offering a reasonable explanation of the infraction. The instructor will be happy to answer questions about what does and does not constitute allowed behavior at any time. The instructors will cooperate fully with any investigation resulting from an appeal of a finding of academic dishonesty. Click here for examples of academically honest and dishonest behavior.
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Grateful thanks to Johannes M. Nitsche for use of website and other course materials