Quantum Heterostructures and Devices
Prereq: Admission to a graduate program or consent of the Instructor for undergrads.
V. Mitin, V. Kochelap, M. Stroscio, “Quantum Heterostructures. Microelectronics
1. Weisbuch, B. Vinter, “Quantum Semiconductor Structures”, Academic Press, 1991.
2.S.M. Sze, “High-Speed Semiconductor Devices”, Wiley, 1990.
3.Gerald, Bastard, “Wave Mechanics Applied to Semiconductor Heterostructures", Halsted Press, 1988.
and V. Mitin, “Introduction to
Vladimir Mitin, Professor of EE, Room 312C, E-mail email@example.com
The course is designed to introduce the student to the fundamental concepts of contemporary microelectronics and nanoelectronics and tendencies in its development.
1. Introduction: Trends in microelectronics and nanoelectronics.
2. Theoretical Basis of Nanoelectronics:
a) Introduction. Problem formulation and theoretical approach;
b) Basic concepts of quantum physics. Waves and particles;
c) Time and length scales. Quantum and classical regimes of transport;
d) Schrödinger equation. Normalization, averages. Separation of variables. Variational method. Perturbation theory;
e) Spin and statistics;
f) Quantum transport. Landauer formula;
g) Boltzmann equation;
h) Self-consistent approach to kinetics. Drift-diffusion, hydrodynamics.
3. Electrons in Quantum Structures:
a) Quantum wells. (Electron spectrum in infinitely deep square potential wells, in finite square wells, in triangular wells, density of states (DOS));
b) Quantum wires and quantum dots (boxes). (Spectrum, DOS);
c) Coupled quantum structures. Superlattices. (Spectrum, DOS);
d) Excitons in quantum structures;
e) Coulomb impurity states. Interface defects.
4. Properties of Particular Quantum Structures:
a) Energy spectra of some semiconductor materials;
b) Lattice mismatch. (Matched and mismatched structures, strained and
c) Single-heterojunction devices. Selective doping. (MOS structures, single
d) Basic equations and quantitative results for a single heterostructure (simple analytical estimates, numerical analysis of selectively-doped single heterostructure, control of charge transfer);
e) Modulation-doped quantum structures (quantum wells, n-i-p structures, delta doping).
5. Abbreviated Discussion of Lattice Vibrations in Quantum Structures:
a) Vibrations of atomic linear chains. (Monoatomic and diatomic chains, acoustic and optical modes, density of vibrational modes);
d) Lattice vibrations in quantum structures. (Acoustic and optical modes, importance of phonons in quantum structures).
6. Abbreviated Discussion of Electron Scattering in Quantum Structures:
a) Elastic scattering in two-dimensional electron systems;
b) Screening of a two-dimensional electron gas;
c) Scattering by interface roughnesses, defects and impurities;
d) Scattering of electrons by acoustic phonons in quantum wells and wires;
e) Scattering of electrons by optical phonons in quantum wells and wires.
7. Parallel Transport in Quantum Structures:
a) Classification of transport regimes;
b) Linear electron transport. (Boltzmann equation., diffusion, mobility);
c) High-field transport. (Hot electrons, streaming, velocity saturation and overshoot, Gunn effect, nonequilibrium phonons, hot-electron size effect);
d) Hot electrons in quantum structures. (Nonlinear transport in two-dimensional electron gases, quantum wires, real-space transfer of hot electrons, nonequilibrium phonons, electron and phonon confinement, heat dissipation, mutual drag).
8. Perpendicular Transport in Quantum Structures:
a) Double-barrier resonant tunneling. (Coherent and sequential, time-dependent Schroedinger and its numeric solution, negative differential conductivity (NDC));
b) Superlattices. (Transconductance, NDC, Bloch oscillations, Wannier-Stark ladder);
c) Ballistic injection devices. Single-electron transfer and Coulomb blockade.
9. Electronic Devices Based on Quantum Heterostructures:
a) Field-effect transistors. (Principle of operation, amplification and switching);
b) Velocity-modulation and quantum-interference transistors;
c) Bipolar heterostructure transistors. (P-n junctions, homostructure and heterostructure bipolar transistors, Si/SiGe heterostructure bipolar transistors);
d) Hot-electron transistors. (Ballistic-injection devices, real-space transfer devices);
e) Applications of resonant-tunneling effect. (Oscillators, frequency multiplier, transistors, circuit applications of resonant-tunneling transistors).
Grading: Straight scale will be used for grading with:
(90 - 100)% - A (85 - 90)% - A- (80 - 85)% - B+
(70 - 80)% - B (60 - 70)% - B- (50 - 60)% - C+
(0 - 50)% - C
It includes: Two homeworks (5% each), two exams (25% each) and term paper - project (40%).
Projects: Student generated project
ABET category content as estimated by faculty member who prepared this course description: Engineering science: 3 credits or 100%
Vladimir Mitin Date: